1938 Munich Agreement

GERMANY, the United Kingdom, France and Italy have agreed on the following conditions and conditions for compliance with this transfer and the measures that result from it, taking into account the agreement already reached in principle on the transfer of the German territory of the Sudetenland to Germany, and, through this agreement, they each take responsibility for the steps necessary to achieve it. Adolf Hitler welcomes Neville Chamberlain upon the arrival of the British Prime Minister in Munich on 29 September 1938. Chamberlain (1869-1940), British Prime Minister from May 1937 to May 1940, was the British leader in the appeasement of Nazi Germany in the late 1930s. National Archives and Records Administration, College Park Italy strongly supported Germany in Munich and, a few weeks later, in October 1938, he tried to use his advantage to make new demands on France. Mussolini requested a free port in Djibouti, control of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railway, Italian participation in the management of the Suez Canal Company, a kind of Franco-Italian co-ownership over Tunisia and the preservation of Italian culture in French Corsica without French popular assimilation. France rejected these demands and threatened naval manoeuvres as a warning to Italy. [94] The Munich Convention was followed on 2 November 1938 by the First Prize of the Viennese, which separated from Czechoslovakia largely Hungarian and southern Czechoslovakia, while Poland also lowered parts of Czechoslovakia in the north. In March 1939, the First Slovak Republic was proclaimed and shortly thereafter Germany took full control of the other Czech parts by the creation of the protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. [4] As a result, Czechoslovakia had disappeared. (8) The Czechoslovakian government will release, within four weeks of the date of this agreement, all Sudeten Germans who wish to be released by their military and police forces, and the Czechoslovakian government will release, within the same period, the prisoners of the Sudetenland who will serve prison sentences for political offences.

The Czechoslovakians were appalled by the colony of Munich. They were not invited to the conference and felt betrayed by the British and French governments. Many Czechs and Slovaks describe the Munich agreement as a Munich diktat (Czech: Mnichovska diktéta); in Slovak: Mnechovska diktét). The phrase « Munich betrayal » (Czech: Mnichovska zrada; In Slovak: Mnechovska zrada) is also used because Czechoslovakia`s military alliance with France proved useless. This is also reflected in the fact that the French government, in particular, had considered that Czechoslovakia would be held responsible for any European war that would result if the Czechoslovak Republic defended itself by force against German abuses. In 1938, the Soviet Union was allied with France and Czechoslovakia. In September 1939, the Soviets were in every respect a fighter with Nazi Germany, due to Stalin`s fears that a second Munich agreement with the Soviet Union would replace Czechoslovakia. Thus, the agreement indirectly contributed to the outbreak of war in 1939. [60] Winston Churchill, who denounced the agreement in the House of Commons on October 5, 1938,[98] said, « Above us, without us! » (Czech: O n`s bez n`s!) sums up the feelings of the Czechoslovakian population (Slovakia and the Czech Republic) towards the agreement. [Citation required] On its way to Germany, Czechoslovakia (as the state was renamed) lost its reasonable border with Germany and its fortifications.

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